Thursday, September 5, 2013

Lorenzo RUSSELL et al.

I have to repeat why I enjoy researching the history of the Choctaw and Chickasaw freedmen and not just concentrate on my family’s history among these tribes. I take the position that if I research the freedmen at certain points I will discover my own family. The reason I do this is simple, the blending of families was obvious when I began researching this history and researching entire history (for me) is more interesting which serves to maintain my.


As I was going through some names of people associated with Bettie’s List (Equity Case 7071) I came across the name of Lorenzo Russell who appeared to have a Choctaw Indian father and freedwoman for a mother. The fact that it also appeared both of his parents were alive and possibly had Dawes cards and packets meant there was a great possibility there was more information to uncover regarding any claim Lorenzo had to have his file transferred to the Choctaw by Blood Roll.
Chickasaw Freedman Card#1306 rear 
 Based on the information provided on the rear of Lorenzo Russell’s Chickasaw Freedman card number 1306 a Choctaw Indian named Jim Russell is given as Lorenzo’s father.  Who knows if it was by malice or just the Dawes Commission working with the leaders of the Choctaw Nation; the pattern of denying people of mixed African-Choctaw ancestry has done a disservice to the history and legacy of the Five Slave Holding Tribes in general.
Choctaw Freedman Card#1364 front

You can peel through pages of Lorenzo Russell’s Dawes packet and aside from the notation on the rear of his Dawes card there is absolutely no mention of his father or the fact that Lorenzo and all of his descendants possess the blood of his father James Russell. What is remarkable is the file of his father!

Choctaw by Blood M1301 #1545 p4
This is another example of the complex nature of relationships and identities that governed the lives of all who lived in Indian Territory. The fact that in 1904 this couple was married and a Choctaw Indian was married to a freedwoman for many years prior to this date had implications the Dawes Commission had to deal with when enrolling this family for land allotments.

  • Should the children be enrolled as Choctaw by blood? 
  • Would the children receive three hundred and twenty acres of land as opposed to the forty freedmen received? 
  • Was James’ wife entitled to be enrolled as an intermarried citizen? For an Indian with children by a white woman the answer was clear, she and her children would be enrolled as Choctaw citizens by blood.

For whatever reason the attorney for James Russell inquired about James being entitled to enroll as an intermarried citizen “the same as other intermarried Indians by blood.” The commissioner caught this statement and clearly must have scratched his head on why such a question would be up for discussion.

I suspect the attorney inadvertently used James’ name when he should have been asking about the intermarried status of James Russell’s wife. It is later in the file on another page that the name of James’ wife is revealed. 
Choctaw by Blood M1301#1545 p7
There is nothing contained in this “interview” given by Julia Russell the wife of James Russell that prompted Commissioner Needles to see if Julia’s children were on the Choctaw by Blood roll nor did he determine if she wanted to be enrolled as an intermarried Choctaw citizen due to the fact she was “legally” married to a Choctaw Indian. Commissioner Needles simply rubber stamped the interview and enrolled Julia as a Chickasaw freedmen until she was later transferred to the Choctaw Freedmen roll.

Two remarkable documents were present in the file of James Russell; this one with Julia commenting on her parents provided information about her mother and siblings. The document provided information that Julia’s mother had been sold to someone in Texas and while there she gave birth to three other children.

It was this document and that history of being sold along with the name of her mother that rang a familiar tone to me and my own family history. Phoebe Jackson and the story of her being sold by a James Lanihee is the same story of my great great grandfather on my maternal line; Isom Jackson.

Choctaw Freedman Card#1213 rear

Choctaw Freedman Card#1213 front

Choctaw Freedman M1301# 1213 p3
Looking at the brother of Julia, Isom Jackson’s Dawes card you will note Isom’s wife also claimed to have a father of Indian (Chickasaw) descent and blood. This is again a reminder of just how fluid and complex the relationships were during this time and that despite all claims to the contrary there is more and more evidence that Choctaw and Chickasaw men father a large number of children with their slaves and subsequently denied their own children the same privileges of citizenship in the nation of their birth.

To illustrate just how misguided a policy this was by the tribes with the complicity of the United States government, the other document in the packet of James Russell is one dealing with the citizenship claims of another son, Dan Russell.

M 1301 Choctaw by Blood#1545 p2
  •        Naturally the question becomes is this one of Julia’s sons?
  •        Was he enrolled as a citizen by blood or was he a freedman?
  •        Dan and Lorenzo have the same father so they both should be considered “Choctaws by Blood?”
  •       You probably know where I’m going with this but bear with me…
  •        If Dan was mentioned in his father’s Dawes file, he should have a file of his own, right?

Choctaw by Blood # 5371
Dan is the son of James Russell, he is also the half-brother of Lorenzo Russell but because Dan’s mother Molsy was considered a Choctaw Dan was placed on the Choctaw by Blood roll. Dan received payments in 1893 and was considered to be one-sixteenth Choctaw Indian.

Lorenzo on the other hand was placed on the freedmen roll, no mention of his Choctaw blood is provided and despite the marriage between James and Julia, not one other person in this family was placed on the Choctaw by Blood roll.

Quite frankly I don’t know how these tribes morally continue to toe this line of ONLY those who have an ancestor on the “blood” roll have a right to citizenship when the Dawes Commission clearly ignored the relationships and genealogy of the thousands of men and women who sought to be placed on the correct roll for citizenship in the nation of their birth.

There is a third document that has nothing to do with claims of citizenship but was an interesting piece of historical knowledge contained in the file of Dan Russell.

Dan considered him self a cowboy and in 1896 in volunteered to fight in the Spanish American War as a “Rough Rider.” This meant he may have had a relationship or at least knew Teddy Roosevelt before he became president of the United States.
M1301 Choctaw by Blood 5371 p3
There is another historical point to make here and that would be the time Dan spent in Leavenworth Penitentiary. From listening to an online presentation given by the National Archives and from prior experience, there is a good possibility that an image of Dan exist.

His military records I was able to locate online again through NARA only provide some basic information about Dan that is repeated in his testimony before the Dawes Commission so if there is additional information or another military record, the descendants of Dan Russell or for that matter the Choctaw Nation might be encouraged to locate more on this man because of his contribution as a Rough Rider.

M1301 Choctaw by Blood#5371 p5


12 Record of Service Dan Russell NARA National Archives Identifier: 301365
As you can see, the story of the Choctaw and Chickasaw Freedmen has a great deal to do with the history of the Choctaw and Chickasaw nations. Their story should be included as a vital part of both nations so a complete and accurate portrayal of the tribes and all of its people are presented.

To dismiss the history and presence of the Choctaw and Chickasaw Freedmen is morally indefensible. The relationships formed by freedmen and Indian despite the institution of slavery suggests the fear of blacks within the tribe is totally without merit. Contrary to the popular belief you have to be “Indian” to be a citizen ignores just how freedmen were ostracized from the nation of their birth and how subsequent generations sought to survive in a hostile community that marginalized their lives and relationships.

Why are the tribes continuing this legacy?

Tuesday, April 23, 2013

Chicken or the Egg?


I have been working on a database for the more than 1500 claimants on Equity Case 7071 or as I like to call it now, “Bettie’s List.” The database I’m constructing will contain many documents from various sources which include Dawes Cards M1186, the interview packets and census records.

One of the census records I've been considering including in the database was the Choctaw Freedman Roll of 1898-1900 that is part of the Green McCurtain Collection. What became evident when I constructed this montage was the information that is reflected in these two documents.

First I was under the impression that the Choctaw freedmen were citizens of the Choctaw nation and therefore they were duly documented in various tribal census records since 1885.

I was also under the impression the information contained on the Dawes cards was derived from person to person interviews conducted during the Dawes Commission allotment activities from 1898 to approximately 1914 when the rolls supposedly closed.

The fact that the information regarding tribal enrollment number and the age of the enrollee on the Dawes card was supposed to be generated from an interview conducted when the “freedmen” “applied” for their forty acre allotment?

Clearly if there was an interview of the enrollee the information on the front and rear of the card should be reflected and documented in a verbatim interview. I have concluded long ago the so called Dawes “Interview” jackets were essentially summaries of the interview and in the majority of cases omitted pertinent information that is reflected on the card without any reference of it in the summary.

Choctaw Freedmen Card # 106 rear Bettie LIGON et al.

For example, in the case of the people on Bettie’s List in practically every instance when one of these individuals indicated they had a parent (male) who was Choctaw or Chickasaw “by blood” the name appears on the rear of the card but does not appear anywhere in their interview.

As I recall the Chickasaw Nation didn’t have a census for their former slaves because they did not adopt them as citizens and felt no special need to document them. However, the Choctaw Nation did adopt their former slaves and their descendants and there are at least two census records that reflect this, the 1885 and the 1898-1900 Choctaw Freedman Censuses.

It appears in this case the 1898 Census was created from the information received during the Dawes Allotment period. I would imagine the Choctaw Nation did not have a full accounting on who was a citizen in their nation when it came to the freedmen until 1898?


Wednesday, December 14, 2011

Bettie's List ~ Julia Jackson


Bettie’s List ~ Julia JACKSON
Choctaw Freedmen # 1213
Choctaw Chickasaw Citizenship Court # 66

Julia Jackson and her children were part of the complainants in Equity Case 7071. They sought to be transferred from the Dawes Choctaw Freedmen Roll to the Choctaw by blood roll; their actions left a record that becomes further evidence not everyone who possessed Choctaw blood got on the blood roll.

Like so many people classified as freedmen the record to establish their blood ties for citizenship are incomplete and require a great deal of deep research. The information contained in the Choctaw Chickasaw Citizenship Court records provided some insight into the paternity of the transfer cases.


Joe and Dillard Case Files #F-66 Julia Jackson et al.,
This document summarizes the facts of the case for transfer from the freedmen roll to the by blood roll for Julia Jackson and her children.

It purports to give accurate information that reflects why she considers herself and her children as people who possess Choctaw blood and therefore entitled to be listed as a “Choctaw by Blood.”

In this document supposedly fifty-six year old Julia informs the Dawes Commission her father was a Choctaw by the name of Ben Gilbert who was the son of a Choctaw by the name of John Gilbert.

If that is the case then Julia rightfully concludes all of her children would also be descendants of Ben and John “Gilbert” and should have been placed on the Choctaw by blood roll.

Historically we know that the Dawes Commission did not enroll everyone with Choctaw blood on the by blood rolls and it appears they went to great lengths to prevent people like Julia Jackson her children and her grand children from being placed on the proper roll.

This record would seemingly be factual and contain all the correspondence received from the attorneys of the Jackson family but as I continue to look at the available records some things just don’t add up.

In the first paragraph of this letter it mentions a petition was filed on February 12, 1906 by attorney Albert J. Lee “praying for the transfer” of Julia and her children. Looking through the entire file the correspondence from attorney Lee is nowhere to be found.

I would think in such an important matter as this that the record of the Dawes Commission should be complete but this is another case where the commission fails to maintain a clean record in the case of people placed on the freedmen roll who sought to be transferred.

The reason this is important becomes clear when you look at the rationale commissioner Tams Bixby gave for denying a transfer in this case.

Joe and Dillard Case Files #F-66 Julia Jackson et al.,
The importance of a clean record in this case has to do with the method the Dawes Commission determined their cases and how that record was  forwarded to the Secretary of the Interior for a final decision.

The Secretary of the Interior could only give a judgment based on the information he was given and it appears two important pieces of information may have never been provided.

It is an established fact that when a file was sent to Washington D.C. for the approval or disapproval of the Secretary of the Interior, the actual Dawes Card was never included in the packet of information. Secondly, the oral interview that resulted in the information placed on the Dawes Card did not and does not exist in the majority of the transfer cases. In the vast majority of cases a summary of the interview is all that remains in the record.

The only time we will see any question and answer interview would be the result of some follow-up interview that occurred after the person enrolled or when there was doubt about their connection to the tribe in question.

In the case of Julia Jackson and her children we have the rare question and answer oral interview but it was not by her; it was given by her husband and in the response to this application the commission is quick to note there was no evidence of an attempt to be enrolled as a citizen by blood prior to 1906.

The other curious factor in this case is the name the Dawes Commission gives as the name of Julia’s father and grandfather; Ben and John Gilbert respectively. Had the clerks or commissioner provided the actual petition for transfer and the original Dawes card they may have caught their errors.

The commission stated there is no record of Ben or John Gilbert and that may be true but it is not the name given to their clerk during the time Julia’s husband Isom gave testimony when he allegedly enrolled the family as Choctaw Freedmen in 1899.



It is possible the names of the individuals given to the commission could have been misspelled because there is some phonetic likeness to Gilbert and McGibrey or McGilberry or McGillivray all of these factors meant it was imperative the commission get it right and have a complete record, which in my opinion they came up woefully short.

We don’t have much information about Ben Gilbert or probably more accurately; Ben McGillivray, but there is some information about a John McGillivray that fits the description of who might have been the grandfather of Julia Jackson.

Don Martini "Who's ?Was Who Among the Southern Indians a Genealogical Notebook 1698-1907"
Don Martini "Who's ?Was Who Among the Southern Indians a Genealogical Notebook 1698-1907"

It will take further research to determine whether one of those male children between ten and twenty was named Ben to see if there is any truth to the rumor that this may have been Julia’s grandfather but clearly the Dawes Commission was completely inaccurate about the name of Julia’s father.

For the record, I’m also perplexed that there is no correspondence from Albert J. Lee correcting this obvious mistake of Gilbert as it is portrayed in the letter from Tams Bixby and McGilbrey/McGillivray as it is noted on the rear of Choctaw Freedmen card number 1213.

There is one more oddity concerning the Dawes Card of Isom and Julia Jackson; there are no slave owners indicated on the front of the card. Because of their ages, they would have them born in slavery, yet only during the interview given by Isom in 1899 he refers to his enslaver. There does not appear to be any information regarding Julia being enslaved.
This appears to be another case where the clerk at the Dawes Commission got it wrong or omitted what should have been important information just to establish the Jackson family to the Choctaw nation for citizenship as freedmen.


The transfer cases continue to bring home the question of how serious the Five Slave Holding Tribes are concerned about their "real" history? 

We see many articles in scholarly journals, history books and on their own websites that advocate the history of their tribes with great fanfare about preserving Indian nations for "Indians." Here are cases in the thousands that clearly point out there are some "Indians" that were left off the rolls and marginalized because their mother's happened to be of "African descent." 

There is no question that "race" was at the heart of these decisions. There is no question that what the tribal leaders did in conjunction with the Dawes Commission was an effort to rid itself of all connections to those slaves who bore the children of Choctaw and Chickasaw men who were entitled to three hundred and twenty acres of land like the children who were given birth by "white" women and Indian fathers.

Problem is, can anyone today say with a straight face the descendants of these men and women do not possess Choctaw and or Chickasaw blood?































Monday, December 12, 2011

One Hundred Years Ago Today...


December 12, 1911

Daily Ardmoreite April 14, 1907 p6c5
What was once thought to be the “most important suit filed” in Indian Territory on April 13, 1907; became a memorandum: just a footnote in the records of the United States Supreme Court!

Bettie Ligon et al., v Douglas H. Johnston, Green McCurtain and James R. Garfield, Secretary of the Interior is commonly known as Equity Case 7071 and the ramifications of this case should have turned Indian Territory upside down.

What happened on this day at the United States Supreme Court defies logic and understanding. The lawsuit involved millions of dollars in land that could have potentially been in the tens or hundreds of millions based on the natural resources like oil, gas, coal and asphalt that was known to be in the Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations following the Civil War.

The foundation of the claims of citizenship for fifteen hundred to two thousand individuals and their descendants in the Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations was predicated on one simple truth; we are the product of our ancestors.

In genealogical terms the 1,500 to 2,000 men, women and children who were claimants on Equity Case 7071 were the children of Choctaw and Chickasaw men and therefore should have been placed on the citizenship by blood rolls of their ancestors.

Unfortunately, like most things that involve race, their efforts at obtaining citizenship were thwarted at every turn. The Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations allowed the institution of slavery among their citizens prior to the Civil War and based on their antebellum concepts of race.

The Dawes Commission as well as the Choctaw and Chickasaw nations determined that a child was considered to be the race of their mother and if that mother was determined to be black, Negro, or of African descent, then so was the child.

This of course had to include the absurdity of completely ignoring and denying the father who was a Choctaw or Chickasaw citizen by blood. It also was in complete contradiction of the established law on lineal descent that was established at the time. It also worked to prevent the possibility that we see today that none of the descendants of the original complainants involved with Equity Case 7071 are citizens of the Choctaw or Chickasaw Nation.

What we have on this day, one hundred years later a “continuing wrong” that is nothing more than a memo of the United States Supreme Court.

U.S. Supreme Court Memorandum December 12, 1911


Saturday, November 26, 2011

Death of Bettie Ligon ~ November 21, 1911


Bettie Ligon died today from lumbar pneumonia. Bettie Ligon was the lead litigant on Equity Case 7071 involving approximately 2,000 so called Chickasaw and Choctaw Freedmen who were seeking full “rights and privileges” as citizens in the respective nation of their and their parents birth. 

The litigants in this lawsuit were seeking recognition from the two nations and the United States government as citizens based on being progeny of a parent who was considered a Chickasaw and/or Choctaw “by blood” on the Dawes Rolls.

Bettie Ligon's  death comes almost a year after the decision by the United States Supreme Court of December 12, 1911. The decision by the court was rendered without any oral arguments on the merits of Equity Case 7071. 

 The defendants attorneys did not appear before the court and written briefs were not provided as stipulated, yet these 2,000 “Black Indians” and their descendants today are not considered Chickasaw nor Choctaw and are not citizens of their respective nations as stipulated in ALL legislation applicable to them.

The dismissal in this lawsuit begs the question of why didn’t the brief’s for such an important case worth millions of dollars failed to be filed for a hearing before the Supreme Court?

From the initial filing on April 13, 1907 until almost six years later; Bettie Ligon et al., was deemed one of the most important cases in Indian Territory history, yet, when given the opportunity to argue their case before the highest court in the country, attorneys failed their fiduciary responsibility to file the required papers to stand before the justices of the Supreme Court.

For this case never to be argued before the Supreme Court meant a great deal for the state of Oklahoma, the Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations and ultimately for the descendants of the more than fifteen hundred men, women and children involved.

The state of Oklahoma was being rushed by its politician's and corporate leaders so the natural resources of the state could be exploited.

The Choctaw and Chickasaw Nation's were to benefit from a great deal of the wealth that was to be thrown their way based on allowing companies like Standard Oil and the multitude of railroads to intersect the territory, all providing funds to the leading men and families in the respective nations.

Yet the publisher's of the Daily Ardmoreite, a paper that was not sympathetic to the plight of blacks or Indian Territory freedmen understood clearly the importance of this challenge to the tribes and the country.

The addition of this many African-Native people could in their eyes go against everything they understood about race and how the descendants of former slaves and slave owners should be viewed when it came to sharing in the land and possible revenues from the natural resources located in their respective nations.

The difference was large enough to make a difference and quite possibly interfere with the interest of the coal, asphalt, railroad, oil and gas corporations that were licking their lips to establish their business in the territory.

Fifteen hundred people could be  the difference between giving up sixty thousand acres of land as opposed to four hundred and eighty thousand acres of land; this would affect the profits of oil production by requiring royalties to the owners of that land. That much land wealth would have created a class of substantially wealthy blacks that could have challenged the status quo in the new state of Oklahoma?

The latter number would have posed a possible threat to the development and exploitation of what we now know was and is a huge amount of wealth based on those same natural resources in the land.




Monday, October 10, 2011

Alice Lamey et al.

Alice Lamey was one of those brave women of Indian Territory who persisted in her claims of possessing Chickasaw blood and was determined to have the Dawes Commission and the Chickasaw Nation acknowledge her family as Chickasaw Indians by blood.


Image Courtesy of
Carlotta "Kemp" Wheeler
Design by Terry Ligon
 It is unfortunate the decisions of the Dawes Commission and the so called customs of the Chickasaw Nation denied the ancestry of Simmion Lamey and his children. They were enrolled as Chickasaw Freedmen despite the insistence of Simmion’s father being a full blood Chickasaw.


Senate Document 298 (59th Congress, 2nd Sesson p.2)

The actions of the Dawes Commission with the approval of the tribes meant that thousands of people who actually possessed “Indian blood” were left off the citizenship rolls based on the antebellum custom of determining race by the “status” of their mother.


Senate Document 298 (59th Congress, 2nd Session p.8)

In other words if you mother was a slave your "blood" was contaminated and you were not considered to be an "Indian by blood." Only if you mother happened to be "Indian" or "white" you would be considered an Indian. It would appear these attitudes continue with the leaders in the Five Slave Holding Tribes today.  

Senate Document 298 (59th Congress, 2nd Session p.5)


When the attorney’s for the freedmen sought a transfer to the “citizens by blood” roll the Dawes Commission and the tribes completely ignored the mandate that people with Indian blood should be placed on the blood roll; in other words, basic genealogy and lineal descent.



When analyzing documents of “mixed blood” African-Natives we begin to see the pattern and nature of the Dawes Commissions refusal to acknowledge everyone who possessed Indian ancestry.

When the Dawes Commission refused to accept an application for citizenship by blood based on Simmion Lamey’s father, they used the status of his mother, Rose Alhuntubby being an enslaved woman and completely ignored established laws on lineal descent. Their decision was enough to deny this family and all of their descendants to ever be considered Choctaw or Chickasaw.


Alice Lamey et al. F-100 Joe & Dillard Perry Files

As the records will bear out the Lamey family was not alone in having their rights refused which resulted in another miscarriage of justice. Each member of this family would have been allotted three hundred and twenty acres of land that was given to those with Choctaw or Chickasaw. Along with the rights and privileges of citizenship the Lamey family to this day has not been properly acknowledged as being Chickasaw.


Image of Tippie Lamey Courtesy of
Carlotta "Kemp" Wheeler
Graphic Design by Terry Ligon
  
Clearly the Dawes Commission’s actions have made it difficult for all of the “transfer cases” on Bettie’s List to prove their “Indian blood.” The fact that most of the Five Slave Holding Tribes disingenuously claim they will accept anyone with Indian blood on the Dawes Roll, probably doesn’t mean this class of people?

It will take a great deal of moral courage on the part of the tribes to acknowledge the many wrongs their ancestor’s have done.

It will take even more courage for the people and leaders of these tribes to acknowledge that there are people with "Indian blood" who are today being excluded based on some racist custom rooted in slavery.

Note: Lamey family researchers may want to look at additional records concerning this family's claim for Chickasaw citizenship by blood. These files are located at the NARA Dallas/Ft. Worth, TX and the file are listed in the Joe and Dillard Perry database as F-100, F-219, F-64 and so on.


I have a special request if you obtain the files. Since I'm compiling a database with all of the documentation for Bettie's List I could use a copy of each file except F-100 Alice Lamey.


856
Choctaw-Chickasaw
Lamey
Tippy
Joe and Dillard Perry
F-100
90C
857
Choctaw-Chickasaw
Lamey
William
Joe and Dillard Perry
F-100
90C
2059
Choctaw-Chickasaw
Lamey
Eddie
Joe and Dillard Perry
F-219
90C
405
Choctaw-Chickasaw
Lamey
Robert
Joe and Dillard Perry
F-064
90C
404
Choctaw-Chickasaw
Lamey
Dewey
Joe and Dillard Perry
F-064
90C
403
Choctaw-Chickasaw
Lamey
Elizabeth
Joe and Dillard Perry
F-064
90C
1173
Choctaw-Chickasaw
Lamey
Irena
Joe and Dillard Perry
F-156
90C
853
Choctaw-Chickasaw
Lamey
Noah
Joe and Dillard Perry
F-099
90C
858
Choctaw-Chickasaw
Lamey
William
Joe and Dillard Perry
F-101
90C
855
Choctaw-Chickasaw
Lamey
Mary
Joe and Dillard Perry
F-100
90C
891
Choctaw-Chickasaw
Lamey
Robert
Joe and Dillard Perry
F-110
90C
859
Choctaw-Chickasaw
Lamey
Albert
Joe and Dillard Perry
F-101
90C
860
Choctaw-Chickasaw
Lamey
Charley
Joe and Dillard Perry
F-101
90C
861
Choctaw-Chickasaw
Lamey
Daisy
Joe and Dillard Perry
F-101
90C
862
Choctaw-Chickasaw
Lamey
Evalina
Joe and Dillard Perry
F-101
90C
863
Choctaw-Chickasaw
Lamey
Tommie
Joe and Dillard Perry
F-102
90C
889
Choctaw-Chickasaw
Lamey
Sampson
Joe and Dillard Perry
F-110
90C
890
Choctaw-Chickasaw
Lamey
Dewey
Joe and Dillard Perry
F-110
90C
854
Choctaw-Chickasaw
Lamey
Bessie
Joe and Dillard Perry
F-100
90C